نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل و مرتع، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

فرسایش خندقی سهم زیادی در تخریب سرزمین دارد. بنابراین، شناسایی عوامل تشدیدکننده و پیش‌بینی مناطق حساس به آن امری ضروری است. تحقیق حاضر، با هدف تعیین توزیع مکانی و اقلیمی عرصه‌های خندقی در استان کرمانشاه و شناخت ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیک و عوامل اصلی گسترش آن‌ها انجام شده است. ابتدا، با استفاده از عکس‌های هوایی 1:20000 و 1:50000، مناطق عمدتاً خندقی استان مشخص و سپس، این اطلاعات با استفاده از عملیات میدانی تصحیح شد. محدوده‌های اقلیمی مناطق خندقی، با استفاده از نقشه‌های موجود و به‌روش دومارتن اصلاح‌­شده مشخص شد. در هر اقلیم یک تا سه منطقه خندقی به‌عنوان هدف تعیین و در هر یک از آن‌ها یک خندق معرف و دو تکرار شناسایی و با عملیات میدانی و بازدید میدانی شناسنامه خندق‌ها تکمیل شد. این مشخصات شامل موقعیت، تیپ اراضی، ابعاد در سر بالاکند در فواصل 25، 50 و 75 درصد از بالاکند، طول، نیم‌رخ و پلان عمومی خندق بوده است. نتایج نشان داد که حدود 17 درصد استان تحت تاثیر فرسایش خندقی قرار دارد. خندق‌­ها در هشت اقلیم استان و عمدتاً در تیپ اراضی تپه و دشت‌های دامنه‌ای و عمدتاً با مقطع ذوزنقه‌ای و پلان عمومی پنجه‌ای و نیم‌رخ پیشانی عمودی و در سازندهای تبخیری گروه فارس پراکنش دارند. پهنه‌های خندقی سرفیروزآباد، سومار و جبارآباد بیشترین میانگین عرض بالا، پایین و عمق خندق را در میان سایر پهنه‌های خندقی دارند. در بین عوامل موثر در ایجاد و گسترش خندق، می‌توان به شدت بارندگی، شیب، فرسایش‌پذیری خاک به‌عنوان عوامل طبیعی و تخریب پوشش گیاهی بالادست حوضه، تغییر کاربری و بهره‌برداری نامناسب به‌عنوان عوامل انسانی در گسترش فرسایش خندقی اشاره داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Morphometric factors affecting gully erosion development and its climatic zoning in Kermanshah Province, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khosrw Shahbazi 1
  • yahya parvizi 2
  • Mahin Kalehhouei 3

1 Associate Professor, Forest and Rangeland Research Institute, AREEO, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor Soil Conservation And Watershed Management Research Institute, AREEO, Tehran, Iran

3 PhD Student, Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University

چکیده [English]

Gully erosion contributes severe land degradation. It is therefore, necessary to identify the aggravating factors and to provide for sensitive areas to gully development. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial and climatic distribution of gully in Kermanshah Province, Iran and to identify the morphological characteristics and the main factors of their development. First, using 1: 20,000 and 1: 50,000 aerial photographs, the predominantly gully areas of the province were identified and then this information was corrected using field suevey. The climatic zones of the gully areas are identified using existing maps and modified by the Domarten Method. In each climate, one to three gully areas were identified as targets and in each of them a gully was identified and two replications were identified. The gully chanel chrectreristices were location, landuse, dimensions at the head-cut, intervals of 25, 50 and 75%, slope, width, length and cross section. The results showed that 17% of areas in the Kermanshah Province was affecterd by gully erosion comprising eight sub-climate classes. Dominat topographic conditions of gullies were developed at hilly and gentle plain areas with Trapezoidal cross section. The cross section indicated deep and V-shaped gully in marl formations (Fars group). These areas included Sarfiroozabad, Somar and Jabbarabad where most of gully measures were deeper and wider than other parts. Among the effective factors in creating and expanding the gully, we can mention heavy rainfall, slope, soil erodibility and destruction of vegetation upstream of the basin as natural factors and change of land use and improper exploitation as human factors in developing gully erosion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gully areas
  • Human factors
  • Land use change
  • Natural factors
  • Spatial distribution
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