نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

رواناب، یکی از اجزا چرخه هیدرولوژی است که وقوع آن منجر به هدررفت خاک از دامنه­‌های شیب‌دار و تولید رسوب در حوزه‌­های آبخیز می‌­شود. بررسی عوامل موثر در ضریب رواناب در مدیریت حوزه‌های آبخیز حائز اهمیت است. این پژوهش، با هدف بررسی اثر ویژگی‌های خاک بر ضریب رواناب در زیرحوضه‌های آلانق، لیوار و شکرعلی‌چای در استان آذربایجان‌شرقی انجام شد. برای انجام این پژوهش، پس از نمونه‌برداری، برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک شامل توزیع اندازه ذرات، سنگریزه، جرم مخصوص ظاهری، ساختمان، ماده آلی، کربنات کلسیم و هدایت هیدرولیکی اندازه‌گیری و داده‌های رواناب از ایستگاه‌های هیدرومتری موجود در خروجی حوضه اخذ شد. بر اساس نتایج، ضریب رواناب تحت تاثیر منفی درصد شن و سنگریزه، ماده آلی، آهک، اندازه و پایداری خاکدانه و هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع است و همبستگی آن با درصد سیلت و رس مثبت بود. با افزایش درصد شن و سنگریزه و کاهش درصد رس و سیلت، نفوذپذیری خاک افزایش و ضریب رواناب کاهش می‌یابد. ماده آلی و آهک، دو عامل مهم در تشکیل و پایداری خاکدانه‌­ها و بهبود هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع خاک هستند و افزایش مقدار آن­ها نقش اساسی در کاهش تولید رواناب دارد. نتایج تجزیه رگرسیون خطی چندگانه نشان داد که تولید رواناب در زیرحوضه آلانق رابطه­‌ای معنی‌دار با مقدار ماده آلی (r=-0.95, p<0.01) و جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک (r=-0.9, P<0.01) دارد. ماده آلی، مؤلفه اصلی در تولید رواناب در زیرحوضه لیوار (r=-0.94, P<0.01) و زیرحوضه شکرعلی‌چای (r=-0.95, P<0.01) بود. بررسی رابطه کلی بین ضریب رواناب و ویژگی­‌های زیرحوضه‌­ها (شیب، ضریب شکل، تراکم آبراهه­ و خاک) نشان داد که ضریب رواناب تحت تاثیر ماده آلی، اندازه خاکدانه و تراکم آبراهه‌ است (R2=-0.93, P<0.01). این مطالعه نشان داد که حفظ و افزایش ماده آلی خاک می‌­تواند با بهبود ساختمان و نفوذپذیری خاک، در حفظ آب باران و کاهش تولید رواناب موثر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the effect of soil properties on runoff production in three sub-basins in northwest of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Reza Vaezi 1
  • Ouldouz Bakhshi Rad 2

1 Professor at Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan

2 Ph.D. Student of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan

چکیده [English]

Runoff is one of the major components of the hydrological cycle, which leads to soil loss from steep slopes and sediment production in watersheds. Investigation of effective factors in runoff coefficient is important in watershed management. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soil properties on runoff coefficient in Alanagh, Livar and Shekaralichay sub-basins in East Azarbaijan Province. After soil sampling, some physicochemical properties were measured and runoff data were obtained from the relevant stations. Based on the results, runoff coefficient in the studied sub-basins is affected by various soil properties such as particle size distribution, gravel, organic matter, lime, aggregate size and stability, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. As the percentage of sand and gravel increases and the percentage of clay and silt decreases, soil permeability increases and runoff coefficient decreases. Organic matter and lime are two important factors in the aggregate formation and stability, and improving the saturation hydraulic conductivity which plays a key role in reducing runoff production. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that runoff production in the Alangh sub-basin has a significant relationship with soil organic matter (r=-0.95, p<0.01) and bulk density (r=0.9, p<0.01). Organic matter content has the main role in runoff production in Livar sub-basin (r=-0.94, p<0.01) and Shekaralichay sun-basin (r=-0.95, p<0.01). Runoff coefficient in all sub-basins in the area is strongly related to organic matter content (r=-0.86, p<0.01), soil structure stability (r=-0.68, p<0.01) and stream density (r=0.49, p<0.01). This study showed that preserving and increasing soil organic matter can be an effective strategy in conserving rainwater and reducing runoff by improving soil structure and permeability.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lime
  • Organic matter
  • Soil permeability
  • Soil structure stability
  • Watershed management
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