نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 مربی، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

5 دانشیار، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، بررسی تاثیر مخاطرات اقلیمی بر خشکیدگی جنگل‌های زاگرس در محدوده استان‌های ایلام، کرمانشاه، لرستان و چهارمحال و بختیاری است. داده‌های مورد استفاده شامل برداشت‌های میدانی با استفاده از GPS، تصاویر 16 روزه سنجنده مودیس، داده‌های رطوبت خاک GLDAS، داده‌های گرد و غبار دوره 2017-2000، و بارش ایستگاه‌های هواشناسی استان‌های مورد مطالعه در دوره 2017-1980 بودند. نتایج بررسی مقادیر سبزینگی جنگل‌های منطقه مورد مطالعه نشان داد که اولین کاهش محسوس در سبزینگی در سال 2005 و در ادامه، با شدت بیشتر در سال 2008 رخ داده است، به‌­طوری‌که نمره Z استاندارد NDVI جنگل‌های منطقه در این سال به 2.18- کاهش پیدا کرده است. نتایج بررسی میدانی و ویژگی‌های مورفومتریک نشان داد که خشکیدگی در قسمت‌های مختلف جنگل‌های استان‌های مورد مطالعه با شدت و ضعف متفاوت رخ داده است و این پدیده مربوط‌ به جهت، ارتفاع و یا شیب خاصی نیست. بررسی ارتباط بین سبزینگی جنگل‌های استان‌های مورد مطالعه با رخداد خشکسالی، گرد و غبار و رطوبت خاک نشان داد که در حالت کلی تغییرات در مقدار بارش و کاهش آن، یکی از دلایل اصلی کاهش سبزینگی درختان جنگل‌های منطقه مورد مطالعه به‌ویژه در مقیاس‌های زمانی 12 و نه ماه است. در نتیجه کاهش بارش و افزایش دوره‌های خشکسالی، مقدار رطوبت خاک کاهش و رخداد گرد و غبار افزایش یافته است. در نتیجه، در بیشتر سال‌ها، همراه با افزایش و یا کاهش رطوبت خاک و گرد و غبار، مقدار سبزینگی جنگل‌های منطقه نیز کاهش و یا افزایش پیدا کرده است که بیانگر وجود ارتباط مستقیم بین رطوبت خاک و ارتباط معکوس بین گرد و غبار و سبزینگی جنگل‌ها است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of climatic hazards impact on oak dieback in west of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aliakbar Noroozi 1
  • Morteza Miri 2
  • Davoud Nikkami 1
  • Tayeb Razi 3
  • Amir Sarreshtehdari 4
  • Ziaedin Shoaei 5

1 Professor, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran

4 Soil conservation and watershed management research institute, Agricultural Research and Education Organization, Tehran, Iran

5 Associate Professor, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the oak forest dieback with respect to drought occurrence, soil moisture changes and dust occurrences factors in Ilam, Kermanshah, Lorestan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari provinces of Iran. The data used were field surveys collected through GPS, MODIS satellite imagery, GLDAS Soil Moisture, dust and precipitation data of the meteorological stations of the provinces during an 18-years period (2000-2017). The results of the study of greenness values of the forests in the study area showed that the first decline occurred in 2005 and repeated more severely with much wider spatial extent in 2008. Investigation of the relationship between drought events and its spatial and temporal variations with the changes in forests greenness of the study area showed that the reduction in precipitation amount is one of the main reasons for forest greenness reduction in the study area. The increased frequency of periods of rainfall shortage and drought duration, especially at 9 and 12-month time scales, showed a significant relationship between drought occurrences and forests greenness in the study area. The results indicated that by decreasing precipitation drought periods increased, soil moisture decreased, and dust storm occurrences increased. As a result, in most of the years, with decreasing soil moisture and increasing dust storms, the forests greenness of the study area has decreased and vis versa. Therefore, there is a direct relationship between soil moisture and forest greenness while an inverse relationship exists between dust and forest greenness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate
  • Greenness
  • NDVI
  • Remote sensing
  • Zagros
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