نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار مرکز تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی سیستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زابل، ایران

چکیده

فرسایش خاک چالش­ مهم مناطق خشک و نیمه‌­خشک است که باعث کاهش محصول و هدر رفت خاک می­‌شود. عدم بهره­برداری مناسب از عرصه­‌های طبیعی سبب ایجاد فرسایش شده است. این پژوهش در شمال سیستان انجام گرفت و هدف از اجرای آن شناسایی تاثیر ماسه بادی بر افزایش رطوبت در منطقه ریشه بوده است. برای اجرای پژوهش، سه نمونه خاک از عمق صفر تا 50 سانتی­متری برداشته شد و ویژگی‌­های اسیدیته، شوری، کربن، مجموع کلسیم و منیزیم، پتاسیم قابل جذب، سدیم قابل جذب، سدیم محلول، فسفر قابل جذب، مجموع کاتیون‌ها و بافت خاک آزمایش شدند. این پژوهش دارای هشت تیمار شامل نهال، خاک و آبیاری بود که به­‌صورت اسپلیت اسپلیت-پلات در سه تکرار به مدت دو سال انجام شد. در تیمار ماسه بادی بعد از کاشت نهال در هر چاله، یک لایه 20 سانتی­‌متری ماسه بادی روی خاک ریخته شد. در این آزمایش رطوبت خاک به­‌طور ماهانه و رشد گیاه در فصول رشد اندازه‌گیری ‌شد. تجزیه و تحلیل آماری­ داده­‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار MSTAT صورت گرفت. یافته‌­ها نشان دادند که مقدار رطوبت در تیمارهای همراه ماسه بادی نسبت به سایر تیمارها 28 درصد بیشتر و از لحاظ آماری در سطح 0.01 تفاوت معنی­دار بین میانگین آن­ها وجود دارد. تجزیه و تحلیل آماری روی اهمیت روش­‌های به‌­کار گرفته­ برای رطوبت نشان ­داد که ماسه بادی به همراه آبیاری زیر­سطحی نهال توت در طبقه A و سایر تیمارها در طبقه B قرار داشتند. همچنین اندازه‌­گیری ارتفاع، تاج پوشش، قطر و تعداد شاخه نشان داد که نهال­‌های تیمار همراه با لایه شنی توت با روش آبیاری زیر­سطحی رشد مناسب‌تری نسبت به دیگر تیمارها داشت و از لحاظ آماری نیز در سطح 0.01 اختلاف معنی‌­داری بین آن­ها­ مشاهده شد. نتیجه‌­گیری می­‌شود، ماسه بادی باعث قطع صعود کاپیلاریته، تقلیل تبخیر خاک، افزایش رطوبت در منطقه ریشه و باعث حفاظت از آب و خاک می­‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of sand on increased moisture in the root zone using two methods of irrigation

نویسنده [English]

  • Mansour Jahantigh

Associate Professor, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Department, Sistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research, Education and Extension Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Zabol, Iran

چکیده [English]

Soil erosion is an important chalenge in arid and semi-arid regions which has a negative impact on soil productivity and lose soil. Improper management of natural resources causes soil erosion. This reaearch was implemented in the north of Sistan and its aim was to idintyfy the effect of sand on increased moisture in the plant root zone. For this pupose, three soil samples were collected from 0-50 cm depth and their pH, EC, C, Ca, Mg, K, Na, ESP, available phosphor, cations and texture were tested. This research had eight treatments including plant, soil and irrigation which have been done in split split-plot in four  replication durig tow years. After plating a 20 cm layer of sand was applied on the soil surface in each pit. In this experiment, soil moisture was measured monthly and plant growth was measured in growing season. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using MSTAT software. Result showed that the amount of moisture was 28% higher in sand compared to other treatments at the level of 99%. According to the findings of statistical analysis on the impotance of methods used for soil moisture, the sand along with subsurface irrigation of toot had better groth at the level of 99% and were in class A and the other treatments were in class B. The conclusion was that sand causes decreasing in capillary, reducing soil evaporation, increasing moisture around root zone of the plants and water and soil conservation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • MSTAT software
  • Plant root
  • Sand
  • Soil moisture
  • Vegetation cover
  1. Alberts, E.E. and W.H. Neibling. 1994. Influence of crop residues on water erosion. Managing Agricultural Residues, 13: 19–39.
  2. Bower, C.A., R.F. Reitemeier and M. Fire-man. 1952. Exchangeable cation analysis of saline and alkali soil. Soil Science, 73: 251-261.
  3. Bouyoucos, G.J. 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Journal of Agronomy, 54: 464-465.
  4. Eslami, A. and M. Farzamnia. 2009. Effect of mulch material on increasing soil water holding capacity and Pistachio yield. Iranian Journal of Lrrigation and Drainage, 3: 79-87.
  5. Babran, S. and N. Honarbakhsh. 2008. Water situation crisis in the world and Iran. Journal of Natural Resources, 16(48): 193-212.

6.     Dinpashoh, Y. 2006. Study of reference crop evapotranspiration in I.R. of Iran. Agricultural Water Management, 84(1-2): 123-129.

  1. H. 1996. Public Irrigation. Tehran University Publications, 310 pages (in Persian).
  2. Feng, H., J. Chen, X. Zheng, J. Xue, C. Miao, Q. Du and Y. Xu. 2018. Effect of sand mulches of different, particle sizes on soil evaporation during the freeze–thaw period. Journal of Water, 10(536): 1-15.
  3. Jahantigh, M. 2013. Identify run off potential on eastern of Iran and inspect the way for making use and control, a case study Iran and Afghanistan border. Final Research Report, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, 44 pages.
  4. Jolaini, M. and E. 2016. Effect of surface and subsurface drip irrigation methods and different water levels on vegetable characteristics, yield and water use efficiency in peach cultivars. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 10: 262-271 (in Persian).
  5. Hussien, S.M., M.A. Fathi and T.A. Eid. 2013. Effect of shifting to drip irrigation on some plum cultivars grown in clay loamy soil. Egypt Journal Agriculture Recourse, 91.1: 217-233.
  6. Mahmoud, I., El. Desouky, A. Sheren and A. El-Hamied. 2014. Improving growth and productivity of pomegranate fruit trees planted on sandy dunes slopes at baloza district (N. Sinai) using different methods of drip irrigation, organic fertilization and soil mulching. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 7(12): 86-97.
  7. Palangi, J.A. and A.M. Akhondali. 2011. Evaluation of Schwartzman and Zur’s model in order to determine Emitters’ distance in drip irrigation, a case study in Albaji Region of Khuzestan Provice. Iranian Journal of lrrigation and Drainage, 2: 202-208.
  8. An, N., C.S. Tang, S.K. Xu, X.P. Shi, B. Gong and H.I. Inyang. 2018. Effects of soil characteristics on moisture evapotranspiration. Engineering Geology, 239: 126-135.
  9. Bainbridge, D.A., J. Tiszler, R. McAller and M.F. Allen. 2001. Irrigation and surface mulch effects on transplant establishment. Native Plants Journal, 2(1): 25-29.
  10. Bayat Movahhed, , D. Nikkami, M. Tokasi and P. Moradi. 2011. Effect of wheat straw mulch application on soil and organic carbon loss in rainfed hill slope lands. Journal of Watershed Engineering and Management, 3(4): 223-231 (in Persian).
  11. Cable, D. 1980. Seasonal patterns of soil water recharge and extraction on semidesert ranges. Journal of Range Management, 33(1): 9-15.
  12. Hellwig, D.H.R. 1973. Evaporation of water from sand, 4: the influence of the depth of the water-table and the particle size distribution of the sand. Journal of Hydrology, 18(3–4): 317-327.
  13. Li, X.Y., D. Gong, Q.Z. Gao and X.H Wei. 2000. Rainfall interception loss by pebble mulch in the semi-arid region of China. Journal of Hydrology, 228: 165–173.
  14. Peng, L., L. Xiao, J.L. Lu, M.X. Zhou, Z.K. Xie, C.Z. Li, L.J. Zhao, S.X. Chai and J. Ren. 2012. Soil profile structure and moisture character of gravel-sand mulched field in arid and semiarid area of China. Journal of Desert Research, 32: 698–704.
  15. McLean, E.O. 1988. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Page, A.L. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of American, Madison, 9(2): 199-224.
  16. Page, M.C., L. Sparks, M.R. Woll and G.J. Hendricks. 1987. Kinetics and mechanisms of potassium release from sandy Middle Atlantic coastal plain soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51: 1460-1465.
  17. Parra, J.L., Pulido, C.L. Fondón and S. Schnabel. 2018. How do soil moisture and vegetation covers influence soil temperature in drylands of Mediterranean regions. Water, 10(1747): 2-14.

29. Ni,  X., W. Song, X. Yang and L. Wang. 2016. Effects of mulching on soil properties and growth of Tea Olive (Osmanthus fragrans). PLoS One, 11(8): 1-11. 

  1. 30. Zhao, W., Yu, X. Ma, J. Sheng and C. Zhou. 2017. Numerical simulation of soil evaporation with sand mulching and inclusion. Journal of Water, 9(294): 2-10.
  2. Zhang, J. 1996. Seed mass effects across environments in an annual dune plant. Annals of Botany, 77: 555-563.
  3. Zhuang, S., B. Yin and Z. Zhu. 2001. A simulation study on effect of surface film-forming material on water evaporation. Pedosphere, 11: 67–72.
  4. Walkley, A. and I.A. Black. 1934. An examination of degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a roposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37: 29 -37.
  5. Wang, W.Z. 2006. Wind tunnel experiments on bare soil evaporation. MSc Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan, 135 pages.
  6. Wang, X. 2015.Vapor flow resistance of dry soil layer to soil water evaporation in arid environment: an overview. Water, 7: 4552–4574.
  7. Wilson, G.W. 1990. Soil evaporative fluxes for geotechnical engineering problems. PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask, 256 pages.
  8. Wilson, G.W., D.G. Fredlund and S.L. Barbour. 1994. Coupled soil-atmosphere modelling for soil evaporation. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 31(2): 151–161.
  9. Wythers, K.R., W.K. Lauenroth and J.M. Paruelo. 1999. Bare-soil evaporation under semi-arid field conditions. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63(5): 1341–1349.
  10. Yanful, E.K. and L.P. Choo. 1997. Measurement of evaporative fluxes from candidate covers soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 34(3): 447–459.
  11. Vedadhir, A. and A. Rnjbar. 2018. Food security and sustainable food and nutrition in the light of security in natural resources: lessons from the anthropological investigations in the world. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, 13(1): 183-192 (in Persian).